Stephan Toulmin (1922-2009) earned his degree in mathematics and physics and wrote on a variety of topics, including international relations, medical ethics and the history of science. However, he is most widely known for The Uses of Argument (1958).
His argument: In this book, he argued that the absolutism of Plato's idealized formal logic is not adequate for all fields of discussion. Instead, he suggested that the way a person argues depends on the contest. Instead of the classical 3-part argument, he proposed 6 parts although saying that how many of the parts applied depended on the context of the actual argument and audience. Moreover, he suggested that questions of science, logic, and ethics need to be looked at inside of real-world situations, not imaginary, impossible ones made up by philosophers.
How his work was received: In fact, the book was not very well reviewed in England, where it was derided as his "anti-logic book"; however, Americans, especially communications scholars eagerly took up his ideas of how to better analyze and write effectively.
Starting Sentence Option 1: According to [study], [statistics on friendship]. This leads us to conclude that [third claim].
Starting Sentence Option 2: Friendship has been around since the beginning of time. [study] shows that [statistics]. It seems then, that the logical [conclusion/thing to do] is [actions], as [third claim],
- Studies show that having friends ensures a happier, healthier life.
- For many, a good friendship is more important than a good relationship with their spouse.
- Habits can be made or broken according to what your close friends do or say.
- Friends are so important because we choose them. They are not born into our family or forced to interact with us as with co-workers.
- Humans were never meant to be alone and thrive in situations where they can have plenty of social interaction, so friendships are a must.
Friends More Important Than Family
The Importance of Friendship